Citizenship is a stable legal relationship between a person and a state, which is expressed by mutual rights and obligations. The procedure implies that a particular citizen belongs to a particular state. The rights and obligations of citizens are set out in the main document - the Constitution of R.F. Also contained in various regulations.
A person is under the constitutional, social, legal protection of the state. A citizen follows all laws. At the same time, the state guarantees the observance of the rights and freedoms of every person, regardless of his social status and affiliation. The totality of rights and responsibilities are elements of the political and legal status of a person. It is he who distinguishes the resident of the country from foreigners and stateless persons.
Unlike the Republic, there is citizenship under a monarchy. In this case, the person is not associated with the state, but with its ruler.
A number of countries do not require the presence of obligatory papers that prove that they belong to the state. In some states there are special cards or passports with a large number of pages.
The value of citizenship
Citizenship gives a person rights and responsibilities. Unlike stateless persons and foreign citizens, a person has the right to vote and stand as a candidate for election. Only people with citizenship can hold high-ranking positions.
The state empowers its residents with the appropriate responsibility:
payment of taxes;
passage of service in the army for males;
taking care of children and disabled parents;
protection of the country, etc.
The documents that confirm citizenship include a passport and a birth certificate. Meanwhile, diplomatic and service passports are supporting documents.
Acquisition of citizenship
There are several ways to become a full citizen of a particular country.
Based on birth
A person has the right to obtain citizenship of the country in which he was born. The acquisition of citizenship is in many cases guaranteed by the birth certificate of a new member of society. If the parents of a newborn are citizens of different states, then the heir has the right to become a citizen of the country that dad and mom choose for him. In some European countries, it is possible to acquire citizenship through inheritance. For example, in Romania and Lithuania, the status of a child will depend on the status that his ancestors had before a certain year.
In the event that the borders of a state change for any reason, then the inhabitants of this territory have the right to choose the citizenship of this or that state. This procedure is governed by agreements between countries.
Choice of citizenship
A person can choose the citizenship of a particular country. But to obtain it, you must comply with some conditions. For example: know the state language; pass the exam; provide a complete package of documents; live in the country for at least the stated period; submit applications, etc. In a number of territories, the head can grant the opportunity to become a citizen due to the merits to the society of this country.
Transfer of territory to another state
If part of the territory was transferred to another state, then the citizens of this settlement become residents of the country that adopted them.
Home purchase and investment
In some countries of the world, citizenship can be obtained if a person has bought real estate or invested in the country's economy. Now this method is one of the most popular tools used in practice. This can simplify the process of obtaining citizenship of another country.
This practice exists in Portugal, Dominica, Cyprus, Spain, Malta, Grenada, etc. Depending on the country, a person can immediately become a full citizen or obtain a residence permit.
Restoration of citizenship
For some reason, a person may refuse or lose their rights and obligations. After a while, you can carry out the procedure for restoring citizenship. This will take time and a package of documents.
Restoration of rights
If a person was previously deprived of citizenship, then he can go through the reintegration procedure and restore his rights. To do this, you need to collect a package of documents.
Return to home country
Prisoners of war, refugees and emigrants can be restored to their rights by going through the repatriation procedure.
Termination of citizenship
Any resident can renounce citizenship. In this case, he acquires the status of a stateless person or a foreign citizen.
Cancellation of the decision on citizenship
If a person previously received citizenship, but indicated false information, the assigned status can be canceled.
On his own initiative, a citizen can apply for termination of citizenship. The application will be granted if the person provides proof that he / she has acquired the citizenship of another country.
Renunciation of citizenship may follow from the state. Termination of the relationship between the citizen and the state can occur for terrorism. Three years ago, the President of Russia signed a corresponding decree.
If a person has dual citizenship, then he can refuse one. Citizens of the Russian Federation have the right to obtain citizenship of a foreign state. If they do not abandon the Russian, then they will have the rights and comply with the obligations of the two countries.
If a person has acquired a second citizenship of a state that has entered into an agreement with the Russian Federation on issues of dual citizenship, then the citizen will be considered a citizen of two states on the territory of the Russian Federation. Otherwise, a person will be considered on the territory of Russia only as a citizen of the Russian Federation.
Transfer of territory
In cases of transfer of territory to another country, people receive a new citizenship.
During expatriation, a person temporarily or permanently leaves the country. Most often this is due to the deprivation of citizenship.
Natural causes include the death of a person. In accordance with article 18, this ground is considered a reason for the termination of citizenship.
In this case, a package of documents is collected, an application is submitted to state bodies. After verification, the citizen receives a letter with a decision. If the answer is positive, the passport of a citizen of the Russian Federation is returned. If there was a refusal, then all mistakes are coped, the application is submitted again.
To renounce the citizenship of children, an application is submitted by parents, guardians or adoptive parents. One adult can apply, but the other must not interfere with the procedure. If one of the parents does not agree, then the other can achieve this through the court.
How to get Russian citizenship
To obtain citizenship, an appropriate package of documents is required. Many experts advise foreign citizens to contact the migration center before submitting an application, collecting documents and paying state fees. This will help to collect the correct papers and avoid refusal to obtain citizenship, thereby not losing the money paid for the state fee and the time spent.
There are two ways to obtain citizenship: general and simplified. With the general method, first a foreign citizen needs to obtain a temporary residence permit, then a residence permit, after that you can apply for citizenship.
Renunciation of Citizenship
Citizenship can be denied for the following reasons:
violation of the sequence of obtaining citizenship;
participation in armed conflicts, a threat to the security of the country;
deportation; submission of false documents or incomplete package of papers;
service in the army and law enforcement agencies of another state;
there is an outstanding conviction, serving a term of imprisonment;
waiver of the oath is different.
What you need to obtain citizenship
In order to undergo the procedure, you must:
reside on the territory of the Russian Federation continuously for five years;
comply with the Constitution and laws of the Russian Federation;
have an official source of income;
know the Russian language (support with relevant documents).
On average, citizenship takes eight years. For registration of citizenship, a state duty is charged in the amount of 3500 rubles. It is not refundable if a decision was made to refuse citizenship.
With simplified citizenship, the period of residence is reduced to 3 years, most often you do not need to obtain a residence permit. In this case, the period for consideration is up to six months. This opportunity can be used by disabled and disabled adults, foreigners and their children (citizens of Ukraine who lived on the territory of Donetsk and Lugansk regions, Crimea, etc.). It is described in more detail in the laws of the Russian Federation.
If a foreign citizen gets married, then he is not automatically assigned Russian citizenship. In this case, the period of residence is reduced to 3 years. For the application, documents will be required, as when applying in the general procedure, but it is also necessary to provide the spouse's passport and marriage certificate.
All documents are submitted in Russian. Otherwise, you must provide a translation certified by a notary.
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