Permit to reside, residence permit and the citizenship of the Russian Federation: How can a foreigner legalize his status in Russia?
Each modern state implements a certain migration policy, and the Russian Federation is no exception: in Russia, as in other countries of the world, there is migration legislation governing the procedure for legalizing foreign citizens. Let’s consider what is the difference between the permit to reside and the residence permit and in what cases foreigners can expect to receive Russian citizenship.
Execution of permit to reside in the Russian Federation
For the majority of foreigners coming to the Russian Federation, the execution of permit to reside is the first step towards obtaining a residence permit and the subsequent acquisition of citizenship. However, even if a foreign citizen does not plan to become a citizen of the Russian Federation in the future, execution of the permit residence is a fairly common procedure: the presence of this document provides a number of significant advantages for foreigners who have chosen Russia as a place to live and work. Thus, the permit residence is a document drawn up in accordance with the procedure established by law and granting a foreign citizen the right to reside in the Russian Federation legally for three years. The main advantages that the holder of this status receives include:
- the right to employment without execution of approval documents for work (only in the region where the permit to reside is received);
- no need to travel outside the Russian Federation every 90 days;
- guarantee of further obtaining a residence permit, as well as, subject to the conditions of stay, the citizenship of the Russian Federation;
- execution of the status of an individual entrepreneur in Russia;
- obtaining a free medical examination and so on.
It should be noted that the execution of the document takes place both by quota (the number of quotas for each region is set annually) and in a simplified manner. Almost every foreigner legally staying in the Russian Federation who has decided to move to Russia for work and residence can get permit to reside under a quota, does not suffer from any infectious diseases that are dangerous to others and does not pose a threat to the security of the country or its citizens. The main difficulty in obtaining a document under quotas is that their number is limited (and at the same time it is constantly decreasing), and in a situation where permissions for the current year have been exhausted, the migrant will be able to apply for permit to reside only next year.
More loyal conditions are provided for foreigners applying for permit to reside without quotas. Migrants who have the possibility of documentary evidence of the existence of grounds for issuing a permit to reside in a simplified procedure may apply for a document without quotas. Legislation includes among the grounds:
- birth on the territory of the RSFSR or the Russian Federation;
- the entry of a migrant into military service in Russia;
- married to a citizen of the Russian Federation who has a residence in the Russian Federation - in the subject of the Russian Federation in which the residence of the citizen of the Russian Federation, who is his spouse, is located;
- the presence of a minor child of a citizen of the Russian Federation;
- the presence of a disabled parent of a citizen of the Russian Federation;
- investment in the Russian economy;
- participation in the program of resettlement of compatriots;
- the presence of adult children of a disabled foreigner who have citizenship of the Russian Federation
The permit to reside issued to migrants is valid for three years and is not renewable. If a foreigner plans to continue to remain in the territory of the Russian Federation, he will need to apply for a residence permit.
Obtaining the residence permit in the Russian Federation
To obtain a residence permit, a foreign citizen is obliged to reside in the Russian Federation for at least one year on the basis of a permit to reside. Citizens of the Republic of Belarus, foreign citizens recognized as speakers of the Russian language, highly qualified specialists and members of their families can apply for obtaining a residence permit in the Russian Federation, by passing the stage of registration of the permit to reside. The difference between the residence permit and the permit to reside is in the scope of the rights that the document grants to the foreigner (the residence permit holders enjoy almost all the rights that are available to citizens of the Russian Federation, except for the possibility of entering the public service and participating in regional and federal elections). In addition, the residence permit has a longer period of validity: it is issued for 5 years. Besides, after the expiration of the five-year period, the holder can extend the document (the number of renewals is not limited). Registration of residence permit is a prerequisite for the acquisition of citizenship of the Russian Federation.
The citizenship of the Russian Federation for foreigners
The current Russian legislation provides that it is possible to obtain Russian citizenship not only by birth, but also in a number of other cases. Accordingly, foreign citizens can apply for the acquisition of citizenship of the Russian Federation, however, this procedure for most foreigners is lengthy (if there are no reasons for obtaining status under a simplified scheme) and complicated. In order to acquire citizenship of the Russian Federation in general, a person must live in the Russian Federation for at least 5 years in a residence permit, and also meet a number of other requirements, including: proficiency in Russian, availability of a legitimate source of income (there should be enough funds to live in Russia, t. e. their volume should not be below the subsistence minimum) and the absence of problems with the law. Also during the five-year period of residence, the applicant for citizenship should not leave the Russian Federation for a period exceeding 6 months (annually). The list of "preferential" grounds for acquiring Russian citizenship includes:
- the birth on the territory of the RSFSR and the existence of USSR citizenship in the past;
- marriage with a citizen of the Russian Federation that lasts at least 3 years;
- participation in the state program of resettlement of compatriots;
- the presence of an adult able-bodied child of a citizen of the Russian Federation with an incapable foreign citizen
- the presence of higher education and work experience in the territory of the Russian Federation
It should be noted that for the majority of applicants it is mandatory to successfully pass the exam on knowledge of the Russian language. It is not required to pass testing to persons who received education in the territory of the RSFSR and the USSR before September 1991, or after September 1991 in the territory of the Russian Federation. Thus, a foreigner will need to undergo a series of bureaucratic procedures to be able to live in Russia. However, it is the registration of the permit to reside, residence permit and Russian citizenship that is a prerequisite for the absence of problems with official bodies and allows migrants to enjoy various benefits depending on the acquired status. In order for the process of registration of permit to reside, residence permit, citizenship and obtaining a passport of a citizen of the Russian Federation to pass with the least difficulties and bring the expected result, it is recommended to seek qualified help from specialists.
Thus, a foreigner must go through a number of bureaucratic procedures for obtaining the possibility to reside in Russia. However, the execution of permit to reside, residence permit and Russian citizenship exactly is the obligatory condition of the absence of problems with authorized bodies and allows migrants to use different advantages depending on obtained status. It is recommended to apply for professional service for the fast process of obtaining the permit to reside, residence permit or passport.