Permit to reside, residence permit and the citizenship of the Russian Federation:
How can a foreigner legalize his status in Russia?
Each modern state implements a certain migration policy, and the Russian Federation is no exception: in Russia, as in other countries of the world, there is migration legislation governing the procedure for legalizing foreign citizens. Let’s consider what is the difference between the permit to reside and the residence permit, and in what cases foreigners can expect to receive Russian citizenship.
Execution of permit to reside in the Russian Federation
For the majority of foreigners coming to the Russian Federation, the execution of permit to reside is the first step towards obtaining a residence permit and the subsequent acquisition of citizenship. However, even if a foreign citizen does not plan to become a citizen of the Russian Federation in the future, execution of the permit of residence is a fairly common procedure: the presence of this document provides a number of significant advantages for foreigners who have chosen Russia as a place to live and work. Thus, the permit of residence is a document drawn up in accordance with the procedure established by law and granting a foreign citizen the right to reside in the Russian Federation legally for three years. The main advantages that the holder of this status receives include:
- the right to employment without execution of approval documents for work (only in the region where the permit to reside is received);
- no need to travel outside the Russian Federation every 90 days;
- guarantee of further obtaining a residence permit, as well as, subject to the conditions of stay, the citizenship of the Russian Federation;
- execution of the status of an individual entrepreneur in Russia;
- obtaining a free medical examination and so on.
It should be noted that the execution of the document takes place both by quota (the number of quotas for each region is set annually) and in a simplified manner. Almost every foreigner legally staying in the Russian Federation who has decided to move to Russia for work and residence can get permit to reside under a quota does not suffer from any infectious diseases that are dangerous to others and does not pose a threat to the security of the country or its citizens. The main difficulty in obtaining a document under quotas is that their number is limited (and at the same time it is constantly decreasing), and in a situation where permissions for the current year have been exhausted, the migrant will be able to apply for permit to reside only next year.
More loyal conditions are provided for foreigners applying for permit to reside without quotas. Migrants who have the possibility of documentary evidence of the existence of grounds for issuing a permit to reside in a simplified procedure may apply for a document without quotas. Legislation includes among the grounds:
- birth on the territory of the RSFSR or the Russian Federation;
- the entry of a migrant into military service in Russia;
- married to a citizen of the Russian Federation who has a residence in the Russian Federation - in the subject of the Russian Federation in which the residence of the citizen of the Russian Federation, who is his spouse, is located;
- the presence of a minor child of a citizen of the Russian Federation;
- the presence of a disabled parent of a citizen of the Russian Federation;
- investment in the Russian economy;
- participation in the program of resettlement of compatriots;
- the presence of adult children of a disabled foreigner who have citizenship of the Russian Federation
The permit to reside issued to migrants is valid for three years and is not renewable. If a foreigner plans to remain in the territory of the Russian Federation, he will need to apply for a residence permit.
Obtaining the residence permit in the Russian Federation
To obtain a residence permit, a foreign citizen is obliged to reside in the Russian Federation for at least one year because of a permit to reside. Citizens of the Republic of Belarus, foreign citizens recognized as speakers of the Russian language, highly qualified specialists and members of their families can apply for obtaining a residence permit in the Russian Federation, by passing the stage of registration of the permit to reside. The difference between the residence permit and the permit to reside is in the scope of the rights that the document grants to the foreigner (the residence permit holders enjoy almost all the rights that are available to citizens of the Russian Federation, except for the possibility of entering the public service and participating in regional and federal elections). In addition, the residence permit has a longer period of validity: it is issued for 5 years. Besides, after the expiration of the five-year period, the holder can extend the document (the number of renewals is not limited). Registration of residence permit is a prerequisite for the acquisition of citizenship of the Russian Federation.
The citizenship of the Russian Federation for foreigners
The current Russian legislation provides that it is possible to obtain Russian citizenship not only by birth, but also in a number of other cases. Accordingly, foreign citizens can apply for the acquisition of citizenship of the Russian Federation, however, this procedure for most foreigners is lengthy (if there are no reasons for obtaining status under a simplified scheme) and complicated. To acquire citizenship of the Russian Federation in general, a person must live in the Russian Federation for at least 5 years in a residence permit, and also meet a number of other requirements, including proficiency in Russian, availability of a legitimate source of income (there should be enough funds to live in Russia, t. e. their volume should not be below the subsistence minimum) and the absence of problems with the law. Also, during the five-year period of residence, the applicant for citizenship should not leave the Russian Federation for a period exceeding 6 months (annually). The list of "preferential" grounds for acquiring Russian citizenship includes:
- the birth on the territory of the RSFSR and the existence of USSR citizenship in the past;
- marriage with a citizen of the Russian Federation that lasts at least 3 years;
- participation in the state program of resettlement of compatriots;
- the presence of an adult able-bodied child of a citizen of the Russian Federation with an incapable foreign citizen
- the presence of higher education and work experience in the territory of the Russian Federation
It should be noted that for the majority of applicants, it is mandatory to successfully pass the exam on knowledge of the Russian language. It is not required to pass testing to persons who received education in the territory of the RSFSR and the USSR before September 1991, or after September 1991 in the territory of the Russian Federation. Thus, a foreigner will need to undergo a series of bureaucratic procedures to be able to live in Russia. However, it is the registration of the permit to reside, residence permit and Russian citizenship that is a prerequisite for the absence of issues with official bodies and allows migrants to enjoy various benefits depending on the acquired status. In order for the process of registration of permit to reside, residence permit, citizenship and obtaining a passport as a citizen of the Russian Federation to pass with the least difficulties and bring the expected result, it is recommended to seek qualified help from specialists.
Thus, a foreigner must go through a number of bureaucratic procedures for obtaining the possibility to reside in Russia. However, the execution of permit to reside, residence permit and Russian citizenship exactly is the obligatory condition of the absence of problems with authorized bodies and allows migrants to use different advantages depending on obtained status. It is recommended to apply for professional service for the fast process of obtaining the permit to reside, residence permit or passport.
Most Frequently Asked Questions and Answers:
Any modern country implements some kind of migration policy. RF is not considered an exception. Here, as in other countries around the world, certain migration legislation is in force. It legalizes the procedure for the legalization of foreigners.
A foreign citizen on the territory of the Russian Federation can legalize his own stay in the country in various ways. And, initially, we are talking about the following options:
- RVP of Russia.
- Russian citizenship.
- Residence permit in Russia.
For most of the citizens of another country who come to Russia, the first step is the direct receipt of such a document as the RVP of the Russian Federation. And after that, you can start the process of obtaining a residence permit in the Russian Federation. Only in the future, after completing all these previous steps, it will be possible to apply for the citizenship of the Russian Federation.
Here, it is imperative to understand that even when a foreigner is not planned to become a citizen of Russia in the future, the process associated with the registration of a temporary residence permit is considered a very popular procedure. Due to the availability of this type of document, each person can take advantage of a huge number of different benefits.
RVP is a separate type of special documentation, drawn up in the manner prescribed by law. It allows a foreigner to obtain the right to legally reside in the country. In other words, a foreign citizen can live in Russia for the next 3 years. The main advantages of this status, without fail, include the following advantages:
- Obtaining the right to subsequent employment without the need for additional type of permits.
- There is no need to cross the border every next 90 days.
- A guarantee for the possibility of obtaining a residence permit in the future. All this also applies directly to Citizenship itself.
- The possibility of registration and such a status as an individual entrepreneur.
- Possibility to use medical care free of charge.
The document registration procedure can be carried out in several ways. This happens in a simplified manner or according to a quota. The number of quotas for any given region is determined every year. If obtaining a permit is carried out according to a quota, then almost every foreign citizen can carry out such an action. The document is necessary not only for living, but also for employment.
The main difficulty in drawing up a document on a quota is that their number is limited. Every year the number only decreases. Therefore, if this year the permits have expired, then in the future foreign citizens will be able to apply again only for the next year.
In this situation, a foreign citizen will be able to independently apply for a RWP permit, when it is possible to confirm the fact of the presence of real grounds precisely by documentary. The grounds for registration in a simplified manner include:
- The fact of birth in the Russian Federation or, for example, in the RSFSR.
- A foreign citizen entered the military service of the country.
- A marriage was concluded with a citizen of the Russian Federation.
- Minor children live on the territory of Russia.
- Disabled parents live on the territory of Russia.
- A foreigner invested his own money in the country's economy, etc.
Here we are talking about the situation when a foreign citizen has already passed all the previous stages, that is, received a temporary residence permit, a residence permit of the Russian Federation. You also need to live in the country for 5 years. Only after that you can proceed to the registration of Russian Citizenship.
The received document is valid for no more than 3 years. He cannot be subjected to such a procedure as an extension. Therefore, if subsequent residence in the state is planned, then it will be necessary to obtain a residence permit in Russia.
To obtain a residence permit in Russia, a foreign citizen must have lived for at least 1 year. Naturally, the RVP itself must be formalized before that. Sometimes this document is not required. All this concerns citizens of the Republic of Belarus. We are talking about foreigners who are native speakers of the Russian language.